University of North Texas, Texas, United States
Keywords: IoT Security, Blockchain, Energy EfficiencyAfter success in bitcoin, blockchain is being explored in various IoT based applications including Smart City, and Smart Healthcare. One of the key challenges of the blockchain is the energy requirement due to heavy computational/communications requirements. It is estimated that mining of 1 bitcoin needs energy equivalent to 2 years’ consumption of a typical US household. Thus, blockchain can only run in the server/cloud of IoT, not at the edge of IoT, preventing its use in scenarios with low-computational infrastructure, fast response requirement, portable applications. In our recent studies on blockchain, we have identified the different steps of the blockchain technology where the energy/computational requirements are the highest. Thus, we propose a paradigm shift blockchain called (iBC) which is energy-efficient, lightweight, private, mutable blockchain geared towards IoT-enabled systems. We propose the following research for iBC: (1) Exploring a novel blockchain architecture called IoT-friendly blockchain which is private, and mutable instead of traditional public and immutable. (2) Exploring a novel lightweight consensus algorithm called Proof-of-Authentication (PoAh) as compared to existing traditional resource intensive consensus algorithms such as Proof-of-Work (PoW) or Proof-of-Stake (PoS). (3) Exploring hardware-assisted PUF algorithm that relies on physical unclonable function (PUF) for authentication instead of software-based hashing.